Basic IMAGE version of Foils prepared 17 November 1998

Foil 71 ASCI Red -- Intel Supercomputer at Sandia

From Master Foilset for HPC Achitecture Overview CPS615 Basic Simulation Track for Computational Science -- Fall Semester 98. by Geoffrey C. Fox
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ASCI Red Intel Supercomputer at Sandia

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Table of Contents for CPS615 - Overview of Computer Architectures

A Brief Discussion of Computer Architectures
1 Computer Architecture for Computational Science
2 Abstract of Computer Architecture Overview
3 Some NPAC Parallel Machines

Technologies of Relevance
4 Technologies for High Performance Computers
5 Architectures for High Performance Computers - I
6 Architectures for High Performance Computers - II
7 There is no Best Machine!

Commodity Driving Forces
8 Architectural Trends I
9 Architectural Trends
10 3 Classes of VLSI Design?
11 Ames Summer 97 Workshop on Device Technology -- Moore's Law - I
12 Ames Summer 97 Workshop on Device Technology -- Moore's Law - II
13 Ames Summer 97 Workshop on Device Technology -- Alternate Technologies I
14 Ames Summer 97 Workshop on Device Technology -- Alternate Technologies II
15 Architectural Trends: Bus-based SMPs
16 Bus Bandwidth
17 Economics

Parallel Computing Architectures
18 Important High Performance Computing Architectures
19 Some General Issues Addressed by High Performance Architectures
20 Architecture Classes of High Performance Computers
21 Flynn's Classification of HPC Systems

Performance Issues
22 Raw Uniprocessor Performance: Cray v. Microprocessor LINPACK n by n Matrix Solves
23 Raw Parallel Performance: LINPACK
24 Linear Linpack HPC Performance versus Time
25 Top 10 Supercomputers November 1998
26 Distribution of 500 Fastest Computers
27 CPU Technology used in Top 500 versus Time
28 Geographical Distribution of Top 500 Supercomputers versus time
29 Node Technology used in Top 500 Supercomputers versus Time
30 Total Performance in Top 500 Supercomputers versus Time and Manufacturer
31 Number of Top 500 Systems as a function of time and Manufacturer
32 Total Number of Top 500 Systems Installed June 98 versus Manufacturer
33 Netlib Benchweb Benchmarks
34 Linpack Benchmarks
35 Java Linpack Benchmarks
36 Java Numerics

Sequential Computer Architecture
37 von Neuman Architecture in a Nutshell

38 What is a Pipeline -- Cafeteria Analogy?
39 Instruction Flow in A Simple Machine Pipeline
40 Example of MIPS R4000 Floating Point
41 MIPS R4000 Floating Point Stages

42 Illustration of Importance of Cache
43 Sequential Memory Structure
44 Cache Issues I
45 Cache Issues II
46 Spatial versus Temporal Locality I
47 Spatial versus Temporal Locality II

Cray T3E as an Example of a Cache
48 Cray/SGI memory latencies
49 Architecture of Cray T3E
50 T3E Messaging System
51 Cray T3E Cache Structure
52 Cray T3E Cache Performance
53 Finite Difference Example for T3E Cache Use I
54 Finite Difference Example for T3E Cache Use II
55 How to use Cache in Example I
56 How to use Cache in Example II

Vector Architecture
57 Cray Vector Supercomputers
58 Vector Supercomputers in a Nutshell - I
59 Vector Supercomputing in a picture
60 Vector Supercomputers in a Nutshell - II

Parallel Memory Structure
61 Parallel Computer Architecture Memory Structure
62 Comparison of Memory Access Strategies
63 Types of Parallel Memory Architectures -- Physical Characteristics
64 Diagrams of Shared and Distributed Memories

Parallel Control Structure
65 Parallel Computer Architecture Control Structure

MIMD Architectures
66 Mark2 Hypercube built by JPL(1985) Cosmic Cube (1983) built by Caltech (Chuck Seitz)
67 64 Ncube Processors (each with 6 memory chips) on a large board
68 ncube1 Chip -- integrated CPU and communication channels
69 Example of Message Passing System: IBM SP-2
70 Example of Message Passing System: Intel Paragon
71 ASCI Red -- Intel Supercomputer at Sandia

Parallel Computing Cache Issues
72 Parallel Computer Memory Structure
73 Cache Coherent or Not?
74 Cache Coherence

Origin 2000 as an Example of Cache Coherence
75 SGI Origin 2000 I
76 SGI Origin II
77 SGI Origin Block Diagram
78 SGI Origin III
79 SGI Origin 2 Processor Node Board
80 Performance of NCSA 128 node SGI Origin 2000
81 Summary of Cache Coherence Approaches

SIMD Architectures
82 Some Major Hardware Architectures - SIMD
83 SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) Architecture
84 Examples of Some SIMD machines
85 SIMD CM 2 from Thinking Machines
86 Official Thinking Machines Specification of CM2

87 Some Major Hardware Architectures - Mixed
88 Some MetaComputer Systems
89 Clusters of PC's 1986-1998
90 HP Kayak PC (300 MHz Intel Pentium II) vs Origin 2000

Special Purpose Devices
91 Comments on Special Purpose Devices
92 The GRAPE N-Body Machine
93 Why isn't GRAPE a Perfect Solution?
94 GRAPE Special Purpose Machines
95 Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) Special Purpose Machines

96 Granularity of Parallel Components - I
97 Granularity of Parallel Components - II

Parallel Computer Networks
98 Classes of Communication Networks
99 Switch and Bus based Architectures
100 Examples of Interconnection Topologies
101 Useful Concepts in Communication Systems

Network Performance
102 Latency and Bandwidth of a Network
103 Transfer Time in Microseconds for both Shared Memory Operations and Explicit Message Passing
104 Latency/Bandwidth Space for 0-byte message(Latency) and 1 MB message(bandwidth).
105 Communication Performance of Some MPP's
106 Implication of Hardware Performance
107 MPI Bandwidth on SGI Origin and Sun Shared Memory Machines
108 Latency Measurements on Origin and Sun for MPI

Architectures according to Culler
109 Two Basic Programming Models
110 Shared Address Space Architectures
111 Shared Address Space Model
112 Communication Hardware
113 History -- Mainframe
114 History -- Minicomputer
115 Scalable Interconnects
116 Message Passing Architectures
117 Message-Passing Abstraction e.g. MPI
118 First Message-Passing Machines

Intel SMP
119 SMP Example: Intel Pentium Pro Quad

Sun E10000 as Example of UMA Commodity System
120 Sun E10000 in a Nutshell
121 Sun Enterprise Systems E6000/10000
122 Starfire E10000 Architecture I
123 Starfire E10000 Architecture II
124 Sun Enterprise E6000/6500 Architecture
125 Sun's Evaluation of E10000 Characteristics I
126 Sun's Evaluation of E10000 Characteristics II
127 Scalability of E1000

Current Near Term Trends
128 Consider Scientific Supercomputing
129 Toward Architectural Convergence
130 Convergence: Generic Parallel Architecture

Emerging Architectures MTA and COMA
131 Tera Multithreaded Supercomputer
132 Tera Computer at San Diego Supercomputer Center
133 Overview of the Tera MTA I
134 Overview of the Tera MTA II
135 Tera 1 Processor Architecture from H. Bokhari (ICASE)
136 Tera Processor Characteristics
137 Tera System Diagram
138 Interconnect / Communications System of Tera I
139 Interconnect / Communications System of Tera II
140 T90/Tera MTA Hardware Comparison
141 Tera Configurations / Performance
142 Performance of MTA wrt T90 and in parallel
143 Tera MTA Performance on NAS Benchmarks Compared to T90
144 Cache Only COMA Machines

Application Motivation for PetaFlops

145 III. Key drivers: The Need for PetaFLOPS Computing
146 10 Possible PetaFlop Applications
147 Petaflop Performance for Flow in Porous Media?
148 Target Flow in Porous Media Problem (Glimm - Petaflop Workshop)
149 NASA's Projection of Memory and Computational Requirements upto Petaflops for Aerospace Applications

The 3 classes of PetaFlop Designs

150 Supercomputer Architectures in Years 2005-2010 -- I
151 Supercomputer Architectures in Years 2005-2010 -- II
152 Supercomputer Architectures in Years 2005-2010 -- III
153 Performance Per Transistor
154 Comparison of Supercomputer Architectures

The Processor in Memory Design

155 Current PIM Chips
156 New "Strawman" PIM Processing Node Macro
157 "Strawman" Chip Floorplan
158 SIA-Based PIM Chip Projections

Exotic Technology: Quantum Computing
159 Quantum Computing - I
160 Quantum Computing - II
161 Quantum Computing - III

Exotic Technology: Superconducting Technology
162 Superconducting Technology -- Past
163 Superconducting Technology -- Present
164 Superconducting Technology -- Problems
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